11. Other Systemic Diseases
In addition to SS, sarcoidosis, and HIV-associated salivary gland disease, there are several other systemic diseases that can cause xerostomia. The Oral Cancer Foundation includes a long list of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cystic fibrosis, bone marrow transplantation, endocrine disorders, nutritional deficiencies, nephritis, thyroid dysfunction and neurological diseases such as Bell’s palsy and cerebral palsy, that can cause chronic dry mouth.
There are also hypersecretory conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, atrophic gastritis and pancreatic insufficiency, that can cause chronic dry mouth. Mental conditions, such as depression, anxiety or stress, and hyperventilation can also lead to chronic dry mouth.
12. Sarcoidosis and Amyloidosis
These conditions are two chronic inflammatory diseases that have been known to cause chronic dry mouth, or xerostomia. Sarcoidosis is caused by a collection of tiny growths made up of inflammatory cells (granulomas) that can occur anywhere in the body, says the Mayo Clinic. It most commonly occurs in the lungs and lymph nodes. But it can also appear in the eyes, skin, heart, and other organs. According to The Oral Cancer Foundation, “Sarcoidosis, or noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, in salivary glands result in reduced salivary flow.”
On the other hand, amyloidosis is a rare disease that occurs when amyloid, an abnormal protein, builds up in the organs. This protein is produced by the bone marrow, but can be deposited in any tissue or organ in the body, explains the Mayo Clinic. The organs that are targeted are different for every person, but most often it’s found in the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system, and digestive tract. Patients with amyloidosis can suffer from chronic dry mouth. “In amyloidosis, amyloid deposits in the salivary glands result in development of xerostomia,” writes The Oral Cancer Foundation.